Hantavirus


Hantavirus home Bunyaviridae family , is an enveloped negative strand segmented RNA virus , genome comprises L, M, S 3 fragments, encode L polymerization enzyme protein , G1 and G2 glycoproteins, nuclear Protein .

What is Hantavirus | Hantavirus


Hantavirus haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) a natural focal disease caused by Hantavirus may be a serious harm to the health of our people’s viral one disease for the “People’s Republic of China Infectious Diseases Prevention Law” provisions Class B infectious diseases.

Clinical manifestations

The main clinical manifestations are acute respiratory failure characterized by non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and high deathrate (52.4%-78.0%) after prodromal symptoms like fever and headache on about 4 days , severe 3-7 days After death, the survivor recovered quickly with none sequelae. Its pathogenesis is especially the direct pathogenic effect of the virus . The kidney is an early primary damaged organ, and therefore the virus may be a direct factor of kidney damage.

The research on the experimental diagnosis of Hantavirus mainly focuses on the appliance of recombinant antigens and therefore the rapid , sensitive and specific methods of experimental diagnosis .

A number of reports have investigated the sequelae of HFRS and HPS. Studies have shown that compared with healthy people, patients who have recovered from the 2 diseases have abnormal kidney or lung function. M. Howard et al. conducted an investigation on pregnant women with HPS, and therefore the results showed that the prognosis of pregnant women with HPS is that the same as that of other HPS patients, and therefore the fetuses of pregnant women with HPS aren’t much different from those of other pregnant women with adult respiratory distress syndrome. within the study, no phenomenon of vertical transmission of SN virus in humans was found

Hantavirus Treatment in Humans (principles)

Since the successful isolation of the virus within the early 1980s, the research on HFRS and Hantavirus has achieved tons of results. especially , the successful development of inactivated vaccines in recent years has created conditions for effective prevention of the disease. However, we still have a niche with foreign research in etiology , laboratory diagnosis , immunopathology and biology , and there are still many problems to be solved. With the deepening of future research and therefore the gradual deepening of the understanding of the disease, the epidemic of the disease in my country can finally be effectively controlled. [1]

• Early antiviral treatment

HFRS disease mainly virus was an immediate role in virus viremia and therefore the inner peripheral blood mononuclear cells present viral time is usually 7 to 10 days or longer, can block the antiviral therapy early pathological injury, reduce the disease and reduce mortality . the appliance of interferon and ribavirin features a definite effect. It are often applied within 7 days of illness, and therefore the course of treatment is 5-7 days.

• Reasonable comprehensive fluid therapy is that the most vital treatment measure

The preventive treatment should be emphasized, and different fluid therapy principles are utilized in different stages. Mainly use balanced salt solution, and adjust its composition and dosage appropriately consistent with the results of laboratory tests. Hypoproteinemia should be actively corrected.

• Early prevention of kidney damage

The degree of kidney damage within the febrile period is comparatively mild, and therefore the kidney damage is aggravated thanks to various factors, like plasma exudation, blood concentration , insufficient blood volume, and DIC. Therefore, corresponding measures should be taken in response to the above factors, which is a crucial strategy to enhance the result of this disease.

• Uremia during oliguria and various complications

For example, hypervolemia, hypertension , coronary failure , pulmonary edema , massive hemorrhage of the cavity, systema nervosum complications and renal rupture are the five major causes of death. all of them occur within the uremic phase of acute kidney failure . Hemodialysis is that the most vital think about reducing the deathrate . Important means of saving lives should be widely used.

What is Hantavirus | Hantavirus

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Research progress

Scholars from various countries using viral gene analysis method and the host, research Hantavirus virus distance affinities between or among isolates the host animal, and an animal virus and host co-evolution.

On March 5-7, 1998, the 4th International HFRS and Hantavirus Conference was held in Atlanta, USA . Scholars and experts from all over the world participating in the conference exchanged the latest research methods and research results in this field.

 

Research methods and results

F.Elgh et al. used the PUU virus recombinant nucleoprotein as the antigen, which was connected with latex to perform the latex particle agglutination test, which was used for the rapid serological diagnosis of Hantavirus disease . Compared with the ELISA using the PUU virus recombinant nucleoprotein as the antigen, the specificity 90%, sensitivity of 94%.

Jiro Arikawa and other rod-like virus expression HTN, SEO, PUU virus nucleoprotein for ELISA, apply at least two kinds of recombinant antigen (HTN or SEO and PUU and PUU) , can be used for hantavirus infection serological monitoring. Rod-shaped virus expressing the N-terminal deletion or SEO HTN virus nucleoprotein as immunofluorescence assay (IFA) antigen, can be distinguished with HTN SEO viral infection. The recombinant nucleoprotein and N-terminal deletion of the nucleoprotein for ELISA and IFA, providing for hantavirus infection is rapid , sensitive diagnostic methods, safe.

H.Kallio-Kokko the rod-like virus expression PUU virus nucleoprotein for IgG and IgM detection, the PUU virus nucleoprotein expressed in E. coli for IgM detection sensitivity of 100%, the portion for protein expression The sensitivity of IgG detection is low (70%) . They also reported that in the acute cases of PUU virus infection, 2/3 of the cases can be tested by RT-PCR to detect viral RNA from the patient’s blood or urine.

T.Tomiyama other high density particles are coated positive purified hantavirus antigens, high density particle agglutination test (the HDPA) on infection rapid serological diagnosis, the detection of viral infection HTN have a higher sensitivity and Specificity, low-level cross-reactivity to PUU and SN virus infections. HDPA compared with IFA, sensitive nature is similar, but easier than the IFA fast .

combined with magnetic separation technology and an improved guanidine isothiocyanate-phenol one-step method to extract viral RNA, and perform reverse transcription. PCR is used to detect the serum of clinical HFRS patients. Within 7 days, the positive detection rate of the sera of patients was 100%, and the positive detection rate of sera from 8 to 14 days was 57.14%. After 15 days, 22.73% of the patients’ sera were still positive. The amplified product is confirmed to be specific amplification by dot hybridization detection, which provides a specific, sensitive , rapid and direct diagnosis method for early diagnosis of HFRS patients .

Viral gene analysis

JWSong from South Korea and other Eothenomys ( Eothenomys Regulus ) separating the two PUU-related virus named Muju (MUJ) virus. Two viral presence G2 241bp gene fragment sequence difference of 1.2%, G2, and S gene fragment 241bp 208bp gene fragment PUU viral corresponding fragment sequence homology was 79.5% from 80.3% to 83.4% and 81.2%, respectively.

The HTN virus isolated from Russian Far East mouse (Clethrionomys) , Apodemus (Apodemus) and HFRS patients by L.Yashina et al. had the sequence homology of 86%89% in the sequence of M segment. SEO virus isolated from patients with mild HFRS had the same sequence of M segment. Source 97%.

M. Drebot reported for the first time that Canadian prairie voles carried PH-like viruses . There are 25% differences in the sequence of SN virus M and S fragments in different provinces of Canada , and compared with the SN virus strain in eastern Canada, the gene sequences between the SN virus strains are closer.

Yong-Kyu Chu et al. reported that the virus strain derived from Indonesian plate tooth can be amplified by SEO-type specific primers. The 290bp sequence analysis of the M fragment showed a 7% difference from the SEO virus; among the virus strains derived from Thai plate tooth, Two strains are SEO viruses, and the other one can be amplified by HTN-type specific primers. The 290bp sequence analysis of the M fragment shows a 1% difference from the THAI 749 strain.

JWSong et al. compared the TUL virus from Poland with the TUL virus from central Russia and the Czechoslovak Republic. The amino acid sequence homology between the nucleoprotein and the G2 glycoprotein is greater than 96%. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the Polish TUL virus is the closest to the central Russian TUL virus. , But there are also differences.

Another study by C. Sibold et al.- phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein encoding genes showed that TUL virus in West Slovakia is similar to TUL virus in Czech Republic, TUL virus in Eastern Slovakia is similar to TUL virus in central Russia; and the 3′-NCR system Occurrence analysis showed that Eastern Slovakia’s TUL virus was similar to that of Western Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The author believes that the presence of East Slovakia TUL virus from Central Europe and Russia the possibility of TUL virus recombination.

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